Washington, R., M. C. Todd, N. J. Middleton, and A. S. Goudie (2003), Dust-Storm Source Areas Determined by the Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer and Surface Observations, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93(2), 297-313, doi: 10.1111/1467-8306.9302003.


Bharwani, S., M. Bithell, T.E. Downing, M. New, R. Washington and G. Ziervogel , Multi-agent modelling of climate outlooks and food security on a community garden scheme in Limpopo, South Africa, Philosophical Transactions: B , Volume 360, Number 1463 / 2183 – 2194. November 29, 2005. [Reprint]

Eckardt, F.D., Coetzee, S.H., and Washington, R. (2005) SEM view of world’s most significant dust cloud sampled at Chicha, The Chad, Bodele Depression, Sahara. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings, 35: 23.

Efthymiadis D, New M, Washington R, On the reconstruction of seasonal oceanic precipitation in the presatellite era, J. Geophys. Res 110 (D6): Art. No. D06103 Mar 17 2005. [Reprint]

Giles, J. (2005), Climate science: The dustiest place on Earth, Nature 434: 816-819 (14 Apr 2005).

Washington, R., and M. C. Todd (2005), Atmospheric controls on mineral dust emission from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: The role of the low level jet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(17), L17701, doi: 10.1029/2005gl023597

Ziervogel, G., M. Bithell, R. Washington and T , Downing, Agent-based social simulation: a method for assessing the impact of seasonal climate forecast applications among smallholder farmers, Agricultural Systems 83 (1): 1-26 Jan 2005.


Drake, N. and C. Bristow (2006) Shorelines in the Sahara: geomorphological evidence for an enhanced monsoon from palaeolake Megachad. The Holocene 16(6): 901-911.

Engelstaedter, S., I. Tegen, and R. Washington (2006), North African dust emissions and transport, Earth-Science Reviews, 79(1–2), 73-100, doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.06.004.

Giles, J. (2006), Research Highlights: Amazon given a good dust, Nature 444: 126 (9 Nov 2006).

Koren, I., Y.J. Kaufman, R. Washington, M.C. Todd, Y. Rudich, J.V. Martins and D. Rosenfeld (2006) The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest. Environ. Res. Lett., 1: 1-5

Tegen, I., B. Heinold, M. Todd, J. Helmert, R. Washington, and O. Dubovik (2006) Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6: 4345–4359

Washington, R., M. C. Todd, S. Engelstaedter, S. Mbainayel, and F. Mitchell (2006), Dust and the low-level circulation over the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Observations from BoDEx 2005, J. Geophys. Res., 111(D3), D03201, doi: 10.1029/2005jd006502.

Washington, R., M. C. Todd, G. Lizcano, I. Tegen, C. Flamant, I. Koren, P. Ginoux, S. Engelstaedter, C. S. Bristow, C. S. Zender, A. S. Goudie, A. Warren, and J. M. Prospero (2006), Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(9), L09401, doi: 10.1029/2006gl025827.

Washington, R., M. Harrison, D. Conway, E. Black, A. Challinor, D. Grimes, R. Jones, A. Morse, G. Kay, M. Todd (2006) African Climate Change: Taking the Shorter Route, Bulletin American Meteorol Soc 87 (10): 1355+ OCT 2006 [Reprint]

Washington, R., and A. Preston, Extreme wet years in southern Africa: the role of the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res, Atmospheres Vol 111 D15104 doi:10.1029/2005JD006724 [Reprint]


Bouet C., G. Cautenet, R. Washington, M. C. Todd, B. Laurent, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti (2007), Mesoscale modeling of aeolian dust emission during the BoDEx 2005 experiment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L07812, doi:10.1029/2006GL029184. [Reprint]

Brncic TM, Willis KJ, Harris DJ, Washington, R. , Culture or climate? The relative influences of past processes on the composition of the lowland Congo rainforest Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 362 (1478): 229-242 FEB 28 2007 [Reprint]

Engelstaedter, S., and R. Washington (2007), Temporal controls on global dust emissions: The role of surface gustiness, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(15), L15805, doi: 10.1029/2007gl029971.

Engelstaedter, S., and R. Washington (2007), Atmospheric controls on the annual cycle of North African dust, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D3), D03103, doi: 10.1029/2006jd007195.

Stainforth DA, Downing TE, Washington R, et al. Issues in the interpretation of climate model ensembles to inform decisions Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical and Engineering Sciences 365 (1857): 2163-2177 AUG 15 2007 [Reprint]

Todd, M. C., R. Washington, J. V. Martins, O. Dubovik, G. Lizcano, S. M’Bainayel, and S. Engelstaedter (2007), Mineral dust emission from the Bodélé Depression, northern Chad, during BoDEx 2005, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D06207, doi:10.1029/2006JD007170.


Todd, M. C., D. Bou Karam, C. Cavazos, C. Bouet, B. Heinold, J. M. Baldasano, G. Cautenet, I. Koren, C. Perez, F. Solmon, I. Tegen, P. Tulet, R. Washington, and A. Zakey (2008), Quantifying uncertainty in estimates of mineral dust flux: An intercomparison of model performance over the Bodélé Depression, northern Chad, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D24), D24107, doi: 10.1029/2008jd010476.

Todd, M. C., R. Washington, S. Raghavan, G. Lizcano, and P. Knippertz (2008), Regional model simulations of the Bodélé low-level jet of Northern Chad during the Bodélé dust experiment (BoDEx 2005), Journal of Climate, 21(5), 995-1012, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1766.1.


Washington, R., C. Bouet, G. Cautenet, E. Mackenzie, I. Ashpole, S. Engelstaedter, G. Lizcano, G. M. Henderson, K. Schepanski, and I. Tegen (2009), Dust as a tipping element: The Bodélé Depression, Chad, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(49), 20564-20571, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711850106.


Ashpole, I. and Washington, R. (2012) An automated dust detection using SEVIRI: A multiyear climatology of summertime dustiness in the central and western Sahara. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(D8).

James, R., Washington, R., and Rowell, D.P. Implications of global warming for West African precipitation. Oral Presentation: AMMA International Conference, Toulouse, 2-6 July 2012. Slides available at:

James, R., Washington, R., and Rowell, D.P. Implications of global warming for the climate of West Africa and the Congo basin. Oral Presentation: Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Future of African Rainforests, International Conference, Oxford, 4-6 January 2012. Audio available at:

Washington R, New M, Hawcroft M, Pearce H, Rahiz M, Karnacharya J. 2012. Testing climate models for agricultural impacts: recent trends, current projections, crop-climate suitability, and prospects for improved climate model information. CCAFS project report. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

Washington, R., Flamant, C., Parker, D.J., Marsham, J., McQuaid, J.B., Brindley, H., Todd, M., Highwood, E.J., Ryder, C.L., Chaboreau, J.-P., Kocha, C., Bechir, M., Saci, A., Fennec – The Saharan Climate System, 2012, No. 60, Vol. 17, No. 3 p31-32,CLIVAR Exchanges.


Allen, C.J.T., Washington, R. and Engelstaedter, S. (2013) Dust emission and transport mechanisms in the central Sahara: Fennec ground-based observations from Bordj Badji Mokhtar, June 2011. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118.

Ashpole, I. and Washington, R. (2013) Intraseasonal variability and atmospheric controls on daily dust occurrence frequency over the central and western Sahara during the boreal summer. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Ashpole, I. and Washington, R. (2013) A new high-resolution central and western Saharan summer time dust source map from automated satellite dust plume tracking. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(13): 6981-6995.

Ashpole, I. (2013) Patterns and causes of spatial and temporal variability of dust presence in the central and western Sahara. Doctoral Thesis, University of Oxford.

Garcia-Carreras L; Marsham JH; Parker DJ; Bain CL; Milton S; Saci A; Salah-Ferroudj M; Ouchene B; Washington R (2013) The impact of convective cold pool outflows on model biases in the Sahara, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, pp.1647-1652. doi: 10.1002/grl.50239.

Hobby, M., Gascoyne, M., Marsham, J.H., Bart, M., Allen, C.J.T., Engelstaedter, S., Dieh, M.F., Seddik, F., Gandega, A., Lane, R., McQuaid, J.B., Ouchene, B., Parker, D.J., Rosenberg, P., Salah Ferroudj, M., Saci, A., Todd, M.C., Walker, D. and Washington, R. (2013) The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Network: monitoring the Saharan Climate System. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30(4): 709-724.

James, R. and Washington, R. (2013) Changes in African temperature and precipitation associated with degrees of global warming. Climatic Change, 114(4): 589-872.

James, R., Washington, R. and Rowell, D.P. (2013) Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 368(1625 (20120298)): 1-9.

James, R. (2013) Implications of global warming for African climate. DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford. [This thesis will soon be available on the Oxford Research Archive. In the meantime please contact Rachel if you would like access to an electronic copy.]

Marsham, J.H., Hobby, M., Allen, C.J.T., Banks, J.R., Bart, M., Brooks, B.J., Cavazos-Guerra, C., Engelstaedter, S., Gascoyne, M., Lima, A.R., Martins, J.V., McQuaid, J.B., O’Leary, A., Ouchene, B., Ouladichir, A., Parker, D.J., Saci, A., Salah-Ferroudj, M., Todd, M.C., and Washington, R. (2013) Meteorology and dust in the central Sahara: Observations from Fennec supersite-1 during the June 2011 Intensive Observation Period. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118.

Nield, J. M., J. King, G.F.S. Wiggs, J. Leyland, R.G. Bryant, R.C. Chiverrell, S.E. Darby, F.D. Eckardt, D.S.G. Thomas, L.H. Vircavs, R. Washington (2013), Estimating aerodynamic roughness over complex surface terrain, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmos., 118, 12,948–12,961

Ryder, C.L., Highwood, E., Rosenberg, P., Trembath, J., Brooke, J., Bart, M., Dean, A., Crosier, J., Dorsey, J., Brindley, H., Banks, J., Marsham, J.H., McQuaid, J.B., Sodemann, H., Washington, R., Optical properties of Saharan dust aerosol and contribution from the coarse mode as measured during the Fennec 2011 aircraft campaign, 2013, 13, 303-325, doi:10.5194/acp-13-303-2013,Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

Todd, M.C., Allen, C.J.T., Bart, M., Bechir, M., Bentefouet, J., Brooks, A.B.J., Cavazos-Guerra, C., Clovis, T., Dieh, M.F., Engelstaedter, S., Flamant, C., Garcia-Carreras, L., Gandega, A., Gascoyne, M., Hobby, M., Kocha, C., Lavaysse, C., Marsham, J.H., Martins, J.V., McQuaid, J.B., Ngamini, J.B., Parker, D.J., Podvin, T., Rocha-Lima, A., Traoré, S., Wang, Y. and Washington, R. (2013) Meteorological and dust aerosol conditions over the Western Saharan region observed at Fennec supersite-2 during the Intensive Observation Period in June 2011.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Washington, R., James, R., Pearce, H., Pokam, W.M. and Moufouma-Okia, W. (2013) Congo Basin rainfall climatology: can we believe the climate models? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 368(1625 (20120296)): 1-7.


Allen, C.J.T. and Washington, R. (2014) The low level jet dust emission mechanism in the central Sahara: observations from Bordj-Badji Mokhtar during the June 2011 Fennec Intensive Observation Period. Journal of Geophysical Research.

Coghlan, C., Muzammil, M., Ingram, J., Vervoort, J., Otto, F. and James, R. (2014) A sign of things to come? Examining four major climate-related disasters, 2010-2013 and their impacts on food security. Oxfam Research Reports, Oxford. Oxfam.

James, R., Otto, F., Parker, H., Boyd, E., Cornforth, R., Mitchell, D. and Allen, M. (2014) Characterizing loss and damage from climate change. Nature Climate Change.

James, R., Washington, R. and Rowell, D.P. (2014) African Climate Change Uncertainty in Perturbed Physics Ensembles: Implications of Global Warming to 4°C and Beyond. Journal of Climate, 27(12): 4677-4692.

Johan, R., Guy, B., Brian, H., Wolfgang, L., Schellnhuber, J., Kabat, J., Nakicenovic, N., Gong, P., Schlosser, P., Manez, M., Humble, A., Eyre, N., Gleick, P., James, R., Lucena, A., Masera, O., Moench, M., Schaeffer, R., Seitzinger, S., van der leeuw, S., Ward, B., Stern, N., Hurrell, J., Srivastava, L., Morgan, J., Nobre, C., Sokona, Y., Cremades, R., Roth, E., Liverman, D. and Arnott, J. (2014) Climate change: the necessary, the possible and the desirable. Earth’s Future.

Nield, J. M., J. King, B. Jacobs (2014), Detecting surface moisture in aeolian environments using terrestrial laser scanning, Aeolian Research, 12, 9-17

Rosenberg, P., Parker, D., Ryder, C.L., Marsham, J.H., Garcia-Carreras, L., Dorsey, J.R., Brooks, I.M., Dean, A.R., Crosier, J., McQuaid, J.B., Washington, R., Quantifying Particle Size and Turbulent Scale dependence of Dust Uplift in the Sahara using Aircraft Measurements, 2014, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 12, doi:10.1002/2013JD021255


Allen, C.J.T., Washington, R. and Saci, A. (2015) Dust detection from ground-based observations in the summer global dust maximum: Results from Fennec 2011 and 2012 and implications for modeling and field observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(3): 897-916.

Allen, C.J.T. (2015) Atmospheric mechanisms of central Saharan dust storm formation in boreal summer: observations from the Fennec campaign. Doctoral Thesis, University of Oxford.

Engelstaedter, S., Washington, R., Flamant, C., Parker, D.J., Allen, C.J.T. and Todd, M.C. (2015) The Saharan heat low and moisture transport pathways in the central Sahara – multi-aircraft observations and Africa-LAM evaluation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

James, R., Washington, R. and Jones, R. (2015) Process-based assessment of an ensemble of climate projections for West Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research.

James, R., Washington, R. Using climate model experiments to explore difference between degrees of global warming. Oral Presentation: European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, 17 April 2015. Slides available at:

James, R., Washington, R., & Jones, R. Process-based assessment of regional climate model projections over southern Africa. Oral Presentation: European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, 13 April 2015. Slides available at:

Haustein, K., Washington, R., King, J., Wiggs, G., Thomas, D. S. G., Eckardt, F. D., Bryant, R. G., and Menut, L. (2015): Testing the performance of state-of-the-art dust emission schemes using DO4 Models field data, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 341-362, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-341-2015.

Otto, F.E.L., Boyd, E., Jones, R.G., Cornforth, R.J., James, R., Parker, H.R. and Allen, M.R. (2015) Attribution of extreme weather events in Africa: a preliminary exploration of the science and policy implications. Climatic Change.

Ryder, C.L., McQuaid, J.B., Flamant, C., Washington, R., Brindley, H.E., Highwood, E.J., Marsham, J.H., Parker, D.J., Todd, M.C., Banks, J.R., Brooke, J.K., Engelstaedter, S., Estellés, V., Formenti, P., Garcia-Carreras, L., Kocha, C., Marenco, F., Rosenberg, P., Sodemann, H., Allen, C.J.T., Bourdon, A., Bart, M., Cavazos-Guerra, C., Chevaillier, S., Crosier, J., Darbyshire, E., Dean, A.R., Dorsey, J.R., Kent, J., O’Sullivan, D., Schepanski, K., Szpek, K. and Woolley, A. (2015) Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 8479-8520.